Glaucoma is one of the ophthalmic diseases that can damage your optic nerve. The optic nerve supplies visual information to your brain from your eyes, according to Healthline.
Symptoms of glaucoma include severe eye pain, nausea, vomiting, redness in your eye, sudden vision impairment, seeing colored rings around lights, and blurry vision.
Glaucoma is caused by abnormally high pressure inside your eye. Persistent pressure could erode your optic nerve tissue, leading to vision loss or even blindness. If glaucoma is detected and treated early, you may be able to prevent vision loss.
The treatment aims to lower the pressure in your eye, preventing further damage to the optic nerve. So, to do that, doctors might suggest eye drops or oral pills. Glaucoma eye drops are advised to help the fluid in your eyes drain better or to reduce the amount of fluid your eyes make. They include:
Prostaglandin Analogs: These eye drops increase the amount of fluid that drains through the drainage canals in your eyes, according to WebMD. They also help ease the pressure inside your eye. Examples of prostaglandin analogs include:
- Bimatoprost (Generic Lumigan)
- Latanoprost (Generic Xalatan)
- Tafluprost (Generic Zioptan)
- Travoprost (Generic Travatan Z)
Beta-Blockers: Eye drops containing beta-blockers lower the amount of fluid your eye makes, reducing the pressure. Common examples include:
- Betaxolol (Generic Betoptic)
- Timolol (Generic Betimol)
Alpha-Adrenergic Agonists: Like prostaglandin analogs, these eye drops help with drainage, reducing the amount of fluid your eye makes. Examples of these eye drops include:
- Apraclonidine (Generic Iopodine)
- Brimonidine (Generic Alphagan P)
Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors (CAIs): CAIS are rarely used to treat glaucoma. Ophthalmic solutions containing CAIs ease eye pressure because they stop the production of fluid in your eyes. Examples of CAIs include:
- Brinzolamide (Generic Azopt)
- Dorzolamide (Generic Trusopt)
Cholinergic Agents: These eye drops are also rarely used for glaucoma. They help your eye make more fluid. They also help your eye drain more liquid by making your pupil smaller, according to WebMD. Pilocarpine (Generic Carpine) is a cholinergic agent used for glaucoma.
Oral medications are advised when eye drops fail to bring down the pressure in your eyes. CAIs are also available in oral pills, such as acetazolamide (Generic Diamox) and Methazolamide (Generic Neptazane).
Studies have found that diabetes may raise your risk of glaucoma by 36% so it is important to have good control over your blood sugar levels. For more information on the availability of generic drugs for glaucoma, check with your doctor.